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Semin Immunol. 2004 Feb;16(1):17-22.

Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA with Toll-like receptor 9.

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research/Food and Drug Administration, Bldg 29A, Rm 3D10, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) expressing non-methylated "CpG motifs" patterned after those present in bacterial DNA have characteristic immunomodulatory effects. CpG DNA is recognized as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and triggers a rapid innate immune response. CpG ODN are being harnessed for a variety of therapeutic uses, including as immune adjuvants, for cancer therapy, as anti-allergens, and as immunoprotective agents. The signal transduction pathway mediated by the engagement of CpG DNA with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is shared with other members of the TLR family. Recent studies demonstrate that formation and maturation of CpG DNA-containing endosomes are regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases and the Ras-associated GTP-binding protein, Rab5, which are essential for the initiation of TLR9-mediated signaling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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