Send to

Choose Destination
Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Feb;26(1):23-30.

Population pharmacokinetic modeling of oral cyclosporin using NONMEM: comparison of absorption pharmacokinetic models and design of a Bayesian estimator.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital, Limoges, France.


There have been very few population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) studies and Bayesian forecasting methods dealing with cyclosporin (CsA) so far, probably because of the difficulty of modeling the particular absorption profiles of CsA. The present study was conducted in stable renal transplant patients treated with Neoral and employed the NONMEM program. Its goals were (1) to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for CsA based on an Erlang frequency distribution (which describes asymmetric S-shaped absorption profiles) combined with a 2-compartment model; (2) to compare this model with models combining a time-lag parameter and either a zero-order or first-order rate constant and with a model based on a Weibull distribution; and (3) to develop a PK Bayesian estimator for full AUC estimation based on that "Erlang model." The PopPK model was developed in an index set of 70 patients, and then individual PK parameters and AUC were estimated in 10 other patients using Bayesian estimation. The "Erlang" model best described the data, with mean absorption time (MAT), apparent clearance (CL/F), and apparent volume of the central compartment (Vc/F) of 0.78 hours, 26.3 L/h, and 76 L, respectively (interindividual variability CV = 33, 30, and 48%). Bayesian estimation allowed accurate prediction of systemic exposure using only 3 samples collected at 0, 1, and 3 hours. Regression analysis found no significant difference between the predicted and observed concentrations (10 per patient), and AUC(0-12) were estimated with a nonsignificant bias (0.6 to 8.7%) and good precision (RMSE = 5.3%). In conclusion, the Erlang distribution best described CsA absorption profiles, and a Bayesian estimator developed using this model and a mixed-effect PK modeling program provided accurate estimates of CsA systemic exposure using only 3 blood samples.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center