Send to

Choose Destination
N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 29;350(5):451-8.

Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells and the diagnosis of pneumonia.

Author information

Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Central, Nancy, France.



The diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia in patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation remain a difficult challenge. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and its expression on phagocytes is specifically up-regulated by microbial products. The presence of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid from patients receiving mechanical ventilation may be an indicator of pneumonia.


We conducted a prospective study of 148 patients receiving mechanical ventilation in whom infectious pneumonia was suspected. A rapid immunoblot technique was used to measure sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid. Two independent intensivists who were unaware of the results of the sTREM-1 assay determined whether community-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia were present or absent.


The final diagnosis was community-acquired pneumonia in 38 patients, ventilator-associated pneumonia in 46 patients, and no pneumonia in 64 patients. The presence of sTREM-1 by itself was more accurate than any clinical findings or laboratory values in identifying the presence of bacterial or fungal pneumonia (likelihood ratio, 10.38; sensitivity, 98 percent; specificity, 90 percent). In multiple logistic-regression analysis, the presence of sTREM-1 was the strongest independent predictor of pneumonia (odds ratio, 41.5).


In patients receiving mechanical ventilation, rapid detection of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid may be useful in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of bacterial or fungal pneumonia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center