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Theor Appl Genet. 2004 May;108(7):1335-42. Epub 2004 Jan 28.

Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting autumn freezing resistance and phenology in Salix.

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Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7080, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.


Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed at different time points during cold-acclimation of a tetraploid F(2 ) Salix pedigree. The pedigree ( n=92) was derived from a cross between a frost-susceptible diploid female clone 'Jorunn' ( Salix viminalis) and a frost resistant hexaploid male clone 'SW901290' ( Salix dasyclados). Freezing resistance, height growth increment and number of new leaves were assessed at days 0, 12, 20, 24, 31 and 42 of a short day-low temperature (SD-LT) hardening regime, while the initiation of shoot tip abscission and shoot tip abscission were measured daily. Height increment, dry-to-fresh weight ratio and number of new leaves were also measured in a replicated field trial. Freezing resistance was determined from electrolyte leakage of leaf tissues and from visual injuries on stem segments, after exposure to a predetermined freeze-thaw stress. Using a genetic map of the F(2) composed of 432 single-dose AFLP markers, a total of 19 genomic regions controlling freezing resistance (10) and phenological traits (9) before and during cold-acclimation (SD-LT) were identified. The magnitude of the phenotypic variation explained by each freezing resistance locus varied over acclimation time (0-45%), and there was no time point at which all the QTLs could be detected. The single QTL detected for non-acclimated freezing resistance did not reach significance at any time point during cold-acclimation, suggesting an independent genetic relationship between non-acclimated and acclimated resistance to freezing in Salix. Five of the loci associated with freezing resistance shared common intervals with loci controlling phenological traits. Of the 14 QTLs controlling autumn freezing resistance and/or phenological traits in the indoors experiment, six (43%) were associated with autumn phenology-related traits, i.e. height increment, dry-to-fresh weight ratio and number of new leaves, measured in the field. A major locus with multi-trait association in both indoor and outdoor experiments was detected.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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