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Lattice vibrations of manganese oxides. Part I. Periodic structures.

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Laboratoire des Milieux Désordonnés et Hétérogènes, CNRS-UMR 7603, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 86, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.


Raman scattering (RS) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been applied to the structural characterisation of manganese dioxides (MDOs). A variety of synthetic battery-grade MDOs are investigated for comparison to the natural phases. The RS and FT-IR spectra are analysed on the basis of the local environment in the MDO structures considering the vibrations of the MnO6 octahedral building the lattices. The vibrational modes of the MnO6 units expand over 400-650 cm(-l) with additional bands in the low-wavelength region. Structural trends are deduced from the comparison of the vibrational spectra of the MDO phases investigated: birnessite, bixbyite, coronadite, groutite, hausmannite, hollandite, manganosite, pyrolusite, ramsdellite, romanechite, spinel, and todorokite.

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