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J Dent Res. 2004 Feb;83(2):151-5.

Periodontal disease and biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease.

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Department of Oral Health Policy and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the gums characterized by a loss of attachment between the tooth and bone, and by bone loss. We evaluated cross-sectionally the association between periodontal disease and C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, factor VII, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), LDL-C, von Willebrand factor, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2. The final sample consisted of 468 men (ages 47-80 yrs), participating in the Health Professional Follow-up Study, who provided blood and were free of CVD, diabetes, and cancer. In multivariate regression models controlling for age, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and aspirin intake, self-reported periodontal disease was associated with significantly higher levels of CRP (30% higher among periodontal cases compared with non-cases), t-PA (11% higher), and LDL-C (11% higher). Based on our data, periodontal disease showed significant associations with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia, which may potentially mediate the association between periodontal and cardiovascular disease.

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