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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Feb 13;314(3):817-23.

15d-PGJ2 inhibits oxidized LDL-induced macrophage proliferation by inhibition of GM-CSF production via inactivation of NF-kappaB.

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Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.


Macrophage-derived foam cells play an important role in atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induces macrophage proliferation via production of GM-CSF in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), a natural ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, on macrophage proliferation. Mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cells were used for proliferation study and reporter gene assay, respectively. Twenty microgram per milliliter of Ox-LDL induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and 15d-PGJ(2) inhibited Ox-LDL-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner. Ox-LDL increased GM-CSF release and GM-CSF mRNA expression, and activated GM-CSF gene promoter, all of which were prevented by 15d-PGJ(2) or 2-cyclopenten-1-one, a cyclopentenone ring of 15d-PGJ(2). The suppression of GM-CSF promoter activity by 15d-PGJ(2) and 2-cyclopenten-1-one was mediated through reduction of NF-kappaB binding to GM-CSF promoter. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) inhibits Ox-LDL-induced macrophage proliferation through suppression of GM-CSF production via NF-kappaB inactivation.

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