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FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004 Jan 15;40(1):41-9.

Identification of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and related taxa based on large subunit ribosomal DNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis.

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Research Center for Pathogenic Fungi and Microbial Toxicoses, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8673, Japan.


The nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 domains of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA for 76 strains of 46 species of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and related taxa were determined. Intra-species sequence diversity of medically important dematiaceous fungi including Phialophora verrucosa, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Fonsecaea compacta, Cladophialophora carrionii, Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis, Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala spinifera, Exophiala moniliae, and Hortaea werneckii were extremely small; as few as 0 changes were detected in C. bantiana, Fonsecaea and Exophiala species, 1 bp in C. carrionii and H. werneckii, and 2 bp in P. verrucosa. Inter-species nucleotide diversity between most species was higher. These data suggested that the D1/D2 domain is sufficiently variable for identification of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and relevant species. The phylogenetic trees constructed from the sequence data revealed that most human pathogenic species formed a single cluster and that Cladosporium and Phialophora species were distributed polyphyletically into several clusters.

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