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Cancer Res. 2004 Jan 1;64(1):406-14.

Effector cell-derived lymphotoxin alpha and Fas ligand, but not perforin, promote Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell-mediated tumor therapy in established pulmonary metastases.

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Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA.


Cytolytic CD8(+) effector cells fall into two subpopulations based on cytokine secretion. Type 1 CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) secrete IFN-gamma, whereas type 2 CD8(+) T cells (Tc2) secrete interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. Although both effector cell subpopulations display Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), tumor lysis is predominantly perforin dependent in vitro. Using an ovalbumin-transfected B16 lung metastasis model, we show that heightened numbers of adoptively transferred ovalbumin-specific Tc1 and Tc2 cells accumulated at the tumor site by day 2 after therapy and induced tumor regression that enhanced survival in mice with pulmonary metastases. Transfer of either TNF-alpha- or perforin-deficient Tc1 or Tc2 effector cells generated from specified gene-deficient mice showed no differences in therapeutic efficiency when compared with corresponding wild-type cells. In contrast, both Tc1 and Tc2 cells, derived from either FasL or TNF-alpha/lymphotoxin (LT) alpha double knockout mice, showed that therapeutic effects were dependent, in part, on effector cell-derived FasL or LTalpha. Six days after effector cell therapy, elevated levels of activated endogenous CD8/CD44(High) and CD4/CD44(High) T cells localized and persisted at sites of tumor growth, whereas donor cell numbers concomitantly decreased. Both Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell subpopulations induced endogenous antitumor responses that were dependent, in part, on recipient-derived IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. However, neither effector cell-mediated therapy was dependent on recipient-derived perforin, IL-4, IL-5, or nitric oxide. Collectively, tumor antigen-specific Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell-mediated therapy is initially dependent, in part, on effector cell-derived FasL or LTalpha that may subsequently potentiate endogenous recipient-derived type 1 antitumor responses dependent on TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma.

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