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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Jun;286(6):G1000-8. Epub 2004 Jan 15.

Differential effects of deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid on NF-kappa B signal transduction and IL-8 gene expression in colonic epithelial cells.

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Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany.


Several effects of bile acids (BAs) on colonic epithelial cells (CECs) have been described, including induction of proliferation and apoptosis. Some of these effects are mediated through activation of the NF-kappa B transcriptional system. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the BA-induced gene expression in CECs. The human CEC line HT-29 and primary human CECs were treated with dilutions of salts of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). NF-kappa B binding activity was analyzed with EMSA, RelA translocation with immunofluorescence, and I kappa B alpha- and RelA-phosphorylation with Western blot analysis. IL-8 mRNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative PCR and ELISA. Functional impact of NF-kappa B activation was determined by blocking the proteasome activity with MG132 or by preventing IKK activity with a dominant-negative IKK beta delivered by adenoviral dominant-negative (dn) IKK beta (Ad5dnIKK beta). DCA and TDCA induced IL-8 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It is interesting that DCA but not TDCA induced I kappa B alpha-phosphorylation, RelA translocation, and NF-kappa B binding activity. Accordingly, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked DCA- but not TDCA-induced IL-8 gene expression. In contrast, TDCA-induced IL-8 gene expression correlated with enhanced RelA phosphorylation, which was blocked by Ad5dnIKK beta. Our data suggest that DCA-induced signal transduction mainly utilized the I kappa B degradation and RelA nuclear translocation pathway, whereas TDCA primarily induced IL-8 gene expression through RelA phosphorylation. These differences may have implications for the understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gut.

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