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J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):13272-83. Epub 2004 Jan 14.

Protein radical formation during lactoperoxidase-mediated oxidation of the suicide substrate glutathione: immunochemical detection of a lactoperoxidase radical-derived 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide nitrone adduct.

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Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.


A novel anti-5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) polyclonal antiserum that specifically recognizes protein radical-derived DMPO nitrone adducts has been developed. In this study, we employed this new approach, which combines the specificity of spin trapping and the sensitivity of antigen-antibody interactions, to investigate protein radical formation from lactoperoxidase (LPO). When LPO reacted with GSH in the presence of DMPO, we detected an LPO radical-derived DMPO nitrone adduct using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. The formation of this nitrone adduct depended on the concentrations of GSH, LPO, and DMPO as well as pH values, and GSH could not be replaced by H(2)O(2). The level of this nitrone adduct was decreased significantly by azide, catalase, ascorbate, iodide, thiocyanate, phenol, or nitrite. However, its formation was unaffected by chemical modification of free cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan residues on LPO. ESR spectra showed that a glutathiyl radical was formed from the LPO/GSH/DMPO system, but no protein radical adduct could be detected by ESR. Its formation was decreased by azide, catalase, ascorbate, iodide, or thiocyanate, whereas phenol or nitrite increased it. GSH caused marked changes in the spectrum of compound II of LPO, indicating that GSH binds to the heme of compound II, whereas phenol or nitrite prevented these changes and reduced compound II back to the native enzyme. GSH also dose-dependently inhibited the peroxidase activity of LPO as determined by measuring 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) oxidation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the GSH-dependent LPO radical formation is mediated by the glutathiyl radical, possibly via the reaction of the glutathiyl radical with the heme of compound II to form a heme-centered radical trapped by DMPO.

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