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Water Res. 2004 Feb;38(3):733-9.

Effects of chlorine on the decrease of estrogenic chemicals.

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Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan.


The effects of chlorination on the elimination of three estrogenic chemicals such as 17beta-estradiol, nonylphenol and bis-phenol A were investigated using yeast two-hybrid assay (YTA), estrogen receptor (ER) competition assay (ER-CA), and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The results of YTA, ER-CA and the analysis of LC/MS indicated that the estrogenic activity of the above-mentioned three endocrine disruptors were significantly reduced as a result of chlorination. The decrease in estrogenic activity paralleled a decrease in estrogenic chemicals under the influence of free chlorine. One common characteristic of estrogenic chemicals is the presence of a phenolic ring. Considering that a phenolic ring is likely to undergo some sort of transformation in an aqueous chlorination solution, the above-mentioned results may be applied to the rest of the estrogenic chemicals in natural waters.

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