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J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15;189(2):265-72. Epub 2004 Jan 7.

Once-daily versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients: a 48-week randomized clinical trial.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.


The safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of lopinavir, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, coformulated with ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer were evaluated in 38 antiretroviral-naive patients randomized 1:1 to receive open-label lopinavir/ritonavir at a dose of 800/200 mg once daily or 400/100 mg twice daily, each in combination with stavudine and lamivudine twice daily, for 48 weeks. Over the course of 48 weeks, median predose concentrations of lopinavir exceeded the protein-binding corrected concentration required to inhibit replication of wild-type HIV by 50% in vitro by 40- and 84-fold in the once- and twice-daily groups, respectively. Predose concentrations of lopinavir were more variable in the once-daily group (mean +/- SD, 3.62+/-3.38 microg/mL for the once-daily group and 7.13+/-2.93 microg/mL for the twice-daily group). At week 48, in an intent-to-treat (missing = failure) analysis, 74% of patients in the once-daily group and 79% of patients in the twice-daily group had HIV RNA levels of <50 copies/mL (P=.70). Study drug-related discontinuations occurred in 1 patient in each treatment group. Genotypic resistance testing of 4 patients with HIV RNA levels >400 copies/mL between weeks 24 and 48 demonstrated no protease inhibitor-resistance mutations.

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