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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Dec;167(6):1499-505.

Association of intrauterine fetal growth retardation and learning deficits at age 9 to 11 years.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.



We examined the association of fetal and newborn complications, socioeconomic status, and home environment with learning deficits as assessed between 9 and 11 years of age.


A total of 218 high-risk newborns have been assessed at 1, 4, and 9 to 11 years of age. Fetal and newborn complications included 77 newborns with growth retardation. Socioeconomic variables included parental occupation and education. Outcome measures at 9 to 11 years included the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Motor and cognitive development was assessed by a neurologic examination, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Behavior was assessed with the Achenbach Child Behavior Check List and Connor's Teacher Rating Scale.


Learning deficits were identified in 77 of the 218 children (35%). Children with learning deficits had lower full-scale IQ scores and behavioral problems of inattention and anxiety. Both fetal growth retardation and the father's occupation score were independently associated with these learning deficits.


Fetal growth retardation, socioeconomic status, and behavioral characteristics of inattention and anxiety are associated with less favourable academic achievement at 9 to 11 years of age.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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