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Maxillofacial fractures sustained during sports played with a ball.

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Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, The First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Japan.



The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of maxillofacial fractures caused by various sports played with a ball to better understand the nature of these fractures. Study design Retrospective study was carried out using records from 100 patients treated between 1986-2002. Age and sex, etiology, and site of the fracture, yearly and monthly distribution of the fractures, and treatment modality were analyzed.


The fractures mostly resulted from baseball (44%), followed by rugby (28%) and soccer (18%). The highest incidence was in the 10- to 19-year age-group with male propensity. The most common cause of the fractures was impact against another player (43%). The majority of the patients suffered from mandibular fractures (56%), followed by midface (31%) and alveolar fractures (12%). Mandibular angle, zygoma, and zygomatic arch fractures were prominent for rugby fractures. A yearly comparison of the fracture incidence showed a gradual decrease over the 16-year period. Fractures had a peak incidence in autumn. 55% of the patients were treated surgically. Surgical intervention was mostly needed for patients sustaining fractures during soccer (72.2%).


Among ball-related sports, baseball is responsible for most of the maxillofacial fractures, but, although the incidence is not that high, soccer-related fractures may be more severe due to the nature of this sport.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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