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Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):1-9.

AKAPs (A-kinase anchoring proteins) and molecules that compose their G-protein-coupled receptor signalling complexes.

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Department of Molecular Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8651, USA.


Cell signalling mediated via GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) is a major paradigm in biology, involving the assembly of receptors, G-proteins, effectors and downstream elements into complexes that approach in design 'solid-state' signalling devices. Scaffold molecules, such as the AKAPs (A-kinase anchoring proteins), were discovered more than a decade ago and represent dynamic platforms, enabling multivalent signalling. AKAP79 and AKAP250 were the first to be shown to bind to membrane-embedded GPCRs, orchestrating the interactions of various protein kinases (including tyrosine kinases), protein phosphatases (e.g. calcineurin) and cytoskeletal elements with at least one member of the superfamily of GPCRs, the prototypical beta2-adrenergic receptor. In this review, the multivalent interactions of AKAP250 with the cell membrane, receptor, cytoskeleton and constituent components are detailed, providing a working model for AKAP-based GPCR signalling complexes. Dynamic regulation of the AKAP-receptor complex is mediated by ordered protein phosphorylation.

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