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J Urol. 2004 Feb;171(2 Pt 1):626-30.

Urine detection of survivin is a sensitive marker for the noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.

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Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.



In a preliminary study urine detection of survivin, an integrator of cell death and mitosis, accurately detected bladder cancer. The objectives of this study were to confirm these findings in a large cohort of subjects undergoing cystoscopy, to assess the diagnostic performance of urine survivin and to test whether evaluation of urine survivin adds independent value to urine NMP22 (Matritech, Cambridge, Massachusetts) and cytology for the detection of bladder cancer.


Urine survivin was measured using a Bio-Dot microfiltration detection system (Bio-Rad, Hercules, California) in voided urine specimens collected before cystoscopy in 117 cases and 92 controls. Bladder washout samples for cytology were collected in 174 subjects. Urine levels of NMP22 were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Higher levels of urine survivin were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (p <0.001) and tumors of higher grade (p = 0.037), but not with invasive stage, after adjustment for the effects of urine cytology, NMP22 and age. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of survivin for the diagnosis of bladder cancer (64%, 93%, 92% and 67%, respectively), are superior to those of NMP22 and cytology. Survivin had the highest specificity and positive predictive value for the detection of bladder cancer across each tumor stage and grade.


Urine survivin was a strong, independent predictor of the presence of bladder cancer and higher tumor grade. Urine detection of survivin is an accurate diagnostic test for bladder cancer that retains its efficiency regardless of cancer stage and grade.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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