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Surv Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1):109-22.

Practical astigmatism analysis for refractive outcomes in cataract and refractive surgery.

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New Vision Clinics, Cheltenham, Vic, Australia.


The fundamental concepts underpinning the vectorial analysis of astigmatism are straightforward and intuitive, easily understood by employing a simple golf-putting analogy. The Alpins methodology utilizes three principal vectors and the various ratios between them to provide an aggregate analysis for astigmatic change with parallel indices for spherical correction. A comparative analysis employing both arithmetic and vectorial means together with necessary nomogram adjustments for refining both spherical and astigmatic treatments can also be derived. These advanced techniques, together with their suitability for statistical analysis, comprehensively address the outcome analysis requirements of the entire cornea and the eye's refractive correction, for the purpose of examining success in cataract and refractive surgery.

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