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Cancer Cell. 2003 Dec;4(6):463-76.

A chemical genetic screen identifies inhibitors of regulated nuclear export of a Forkhead transcription factor in PTEN-deficient tumor cells.

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Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


The PI3K/PTEN/Akt signal transduction pathway plays a key role in many tumors. Downstream targets of this pathway include the Forkhead family of transcription factors (FOXO1a, FOXO3a, FOXO4). In PTEN null cells, FOXO1a is inactivated by PI3K-dependent phosphorylation and mislocalization to the cytoplasm, yet still undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Since forcible localization of FOXO1a to the nucleus can reverse tumorigenicity of PTEN null cells, a high-content, chemical genetic screen for inhibitors of FOXO1a nuclear export was performed. The compounds detected in the primary screen were retested in secondary assays, and structure-function relationships were identified. Novel general export inhibitors were found that react with CRM1 as well as a number of compounds that inhibit PI3K/Akt signaling, among which are included multiple antagonists of calmodulin signaling.

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