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Biochemistry. 2004 Jan 13;43(1):210-6.

Regulation of the enzymatic catalysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by dsDNA, polyamines, Mg2+, Ca2+, histones H1 and H3, and ATP.

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Department of Anatomy, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Erratum in

  • Biochemistry. 2006 Jan 24;45(3):1074.


The enzymatic mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) has been analyzed in two in vitro systems: (a) in solution and (b) when the acceptor histones were attached to a solid surface. In system (a), it was established that the coenzymatic function of dsDNAs was sequence-independent. However, it is apparent from the calculated specificity constants that the AT homopolymer is by far the most effective coenzyme and randomly damaged DNA is the poorest. Rates of auto(poly-ADP-ribosylation) with dsDNAs as coenzymes were nearly linear for 20 min, in contrast to rates with dcDNA, which showed product [(ADPR)n] inhibition. An allosteric activation of auto(poly-ADP-ribosylation) by physiologic cellular components, Mg2+, Ca2+, and polyamines, was demonstrated, with spermine as the most powerful activator. On a molar basis, histones H(1) and H(3) were the most effective PARP-1 activators, and their action was abolished by acetylation of lysine end groups. It was shown in system (b) that oligo(ADP-ribosyl) transfer to histone H(1) is 1% of that of auto(poly-ADP-ribosylation) of PARP-1, and this trans(ADP-ribosylation) is selectively regulated by putrescine (activator). Physiologic cellular concentrations of ATP inhibit PARP-1 auto(poly-ADP-ribosylation) but less so the transfer of oligo(ADP-ribose) to histones, indicating that PARP-1 auto(ADP-ribosylation) activity is dormant in bioenergetically intact cells, allowing only trans(ADP-ribosylation) to take place. The inhibitory mechanism of ATP on PARP-1 consists of a noncompetitive interaction with the NAD site and competition with the coenzymic DNA binding site. A novel regulation of PARP-1 activity and its chromatin-related functions by cellular bioenergetics is proposed that occurs in functional cells not exposed to catastrophic DNA damage.

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