Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;161(1):88-92.

Panic attacks and psychoticism.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.



The authors sought to determine the association between panic attacks and psychoticism among young adults in the community.


Data were drawn from a 21-year longitudinal birth cohort study (N=1,265). Negative binomial regression models were used to determine the association between panic attacks in adolescence (age 15-21) and psychoticism during young adulthood.


Having a panic attack in the preceding 3 years was associated with elevated rates of psychoticism at ages 18 (rate ratio=2.81, 95% CI=1.92-4.13) and 21 (rate ratio=3.01, 95% CI=2.10-4.33). These associations were adjusted for differences in previous psychoticism, comorbid anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and a range of other potential confounding factors by using a generalized estimating equation model. This analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors, having a panic attack was still associated with an increased rate of psychoticism (rate ratio=1.51, 95% CI=1.14-2.02).


Panic attacks during adolescence are associated with significantly increased levels of psychoticism among young adults in the community compared with young persons with no history of panic attacks. Much of the relationship between panic attacks and psychoticism appears to be explained by common risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity, yet these data provide evidence of an independent association between panic attacks in adolescence and psychoticism during young adulthood in the community. Replication of these findings is needed, as are future studies that further investigate the mechanism of this association.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center