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Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15;38(2):199-205. Epub 2003 Dec 19.

Identification of risk factors for extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

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Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in the United States has increased from 16% of tuberculosis cases, in 1991, to 20%, in 2001. To determine associations between the demographic, clinical, and life style characteristics of patients with tuberculosis and the occurrence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, a retrospective case-control study was conducted. This study included 705 patients with tuberculosis, representing 98% of the culture-proven cases of tuberculosis in Arkansas from 1 January 1996 through 31 December 2000. A comparison between 85 patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (case patients) and 620 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (control patients) showed women (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25-3.13), non-Hispanic blacks (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.42-3.97), and HIV-positive persons (OR, 4.93; 95% CI, 1.95-12.46) to have a significantly higher risk for extrapulmonary tuberculosis than men, non-Hispanic whites, and HIV-negative persons. This study expands the knowledge base regarding the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and enhances our understanding of the relative contribution of host-related factors to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

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