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Nat Immunol. 2004 Jan;5(1):104-12. Epub 2003 Dec 21.

Commensal anaerobic gut bacteria attenuate inflammation by regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of PPAR-gamma and RelA.

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1
Gut Immunology Group, Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, Scotland, UK. D.Kelly@rri.sari.ac.uk

Abstract

The human gut microflora is important in regulating host inflammatory responses and in maintaining immune homeostasis. The cellular and molecular bases of these actions are unknown. Here we describe a unique anti-inflammatory mechanism, activated by nonpathogenic bacteria, that selectively antagonizes transcription factor NF-kappaB. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron targets transcriptionally active NF-kappaB subunit RelA, enhancing its nuclear export through a mechanism independent of nuclear export receptor Crm-1. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), in complex with nuclear RelA, also undergoes nucleocytoplasmic redistribution in response to B. thetaiotaomicron. A decrease in PPAR-gamma abolishes both the nuclear export of RelA and the anti-inflammatory activity of B. thetaiotaomicron. This PPAR-gamma-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanism defines new cellular targets for therapeutic drug design and interventions for the treatment of chronic inflammation.

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PMID:
14691478
DOI:
10.1038/ni1018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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