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Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 15;37(12):1668-77. Epub 2003 Nov 20.

Progress in the development of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus vaccines.

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  • 1Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.


Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) are leading causes of viral lower respiratory tract illness in children and in high-risk adult populations. Despite decades of research, licensed vaccines for RSV and hPIVs do not exist. Recently, however, genetically engineered live attenuated RSV and hPIV candidate vaccines have been generated, several of which are already being evaluated in clinical trials. Recombinant technology allows candidate vaccines to be "fine-tuned" in response to clinical data, which should hasten the development of vaccines against these important respiratory pathogens.

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