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Infect Immun. 2004 Jan;72(1):430-9.

Anthrax lethal toxin induces human endothelial cell apoptosis.

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1
Department of Pathology, Division of Cancer Biology and Angiogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. jekirby@bidmc.harvard.edu

Abstract

Because of its ease of dispersal and high lethality, Bacillus anthracis is one of the most feared biowarfare agents. A better understanding of anthrax pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop new therapies for systemic disease that is relatively unresponsive to antibiotics. Although experimental evidence has implicated a role for macrophages in anthrax pathogenesis, clinical and pathological observations suggest that a direct insult to the host vasculature may also be important. Two bacterial toxins, lethal toxin and edema toxin, are believed to mediate the clinical sequelae of anthrax. Here, I examined whether these toxins are directly toxic to endothelial cells, the cell type that lines the interior of blood vessels. I show for the first time that lethal toxin but not edema toxin reduces the viability of cultured human endothelial cells and induces caspase-dependent endothelial apoptosis. In addition, this toxicity affects both microvascular and large vessel endothelial cells as well as endothelial cells that have differentiated into tubules within a type I collagen extracellular matrix. Finally, lethal toxin induces cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases in endothelial cells and inhibits phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK p46. Based on the contributions of these pathways to endothelial survival, I propose that lethal toxin-mediated cytotoxicity/apoptosis results primarily through inhibition of the ERK pathway. I also hypothesize that the observed endothelial toxicity contributes to vascular pathology and hemorrhage during systemic anthrax.

PMID:
14688124
PMCID:
PMC343952
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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