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J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10167-75. Epub 2003 Dec 18.

Trihydrophobin 1 is a new negative regulator of A-Raf kinase.

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  • 1State Key laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.


Our previous work indicated that instead of binding to B-Raf or C-Raf, trihydrophobin 1 (TH1) specifically binds to A-Raf kinase both in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we investigated its function further. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TH1 colocalizes with A-Raf, which confirms our former results. The region of TH1 responsible for the interaction with A-Raf is mapped to amino acids 1-372. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that TH1 is associated with A-Raf in both quiescent and serum-stimulated cells. Wild type A-Raf binds increasingly to TH1 when it is activated by serum and/or upstream oncogenic Ras/Src compared with that of "kinase-dead" A-Raf. The latter can still bind to TH1 under the same experimental condition. The binding pattern of A-Raf implies that this interaction is mediated in part by the A-Raf kinase activity. As indicated by Raf protein kinase assays, TH1 inhibits A-Raf kinase, whereas neither B-Raf nor C-Raf kinase activity is influenced. Furthermore, we observed that TH1 inhibited cell cycle progression in TH1 stably transfected 7721 cells compared with mock cells, and flow cell cytometry analysis suggested that the TH1 stably transfected 7721 cells were G(0)/G(1) phase-arrested. Taken together, our data provide a clue to understanding the cellular function of TH1 on Raf isoform-specific regulation.

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