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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Jan;15 Suppl 1:S77-80.

Novel cardiovascular risk factors in end-stage renal disease.

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CNR-IBIM, Epidemiologia Clinica e Fisiopatologia delle malattie Renali e dell'Ipertensione Arteriosa, Reggio Calabria, Italy.


Traditional risk factors only in part explain the risk differential between the general population and the population of patients with chronic nephropathies. Uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia and high calcium phosphate product constitute risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications, cardiac ischemia, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, yet inflammation may be an even more important trigger of vascular calcification than these metabolic derangements. Homocysteine predicts cardiovascular events in ESRD, but evidence that this sulfur amino acid is directly implicated in the high cardiovascular mortality of uremic patients is still lacking. It seems unlikely that Chlamydia pneumoniae is a major risk factor in dialysis patients because the association between anti-Chlamydia antibodies and incident cardiovascular events seems to depend largely on the confounding effect of some traditional risk factors. Oxidative stress and raised plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are pervasive in ESRD, and high ADMA in these patients may be at least in part the expression of the high rate of generation of oxidants. ADMA per se seems responsible for a 52% increase in the risk of death and for a 34% increase in the risk of cardiovascular events in dialysis patients.

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