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Anal Chem. 2003 Sep 15;75(18):4887-94.

Capillary isoelectric focusing of proteins with liquid core waveguide laser-induced fluorescence whole column imaging detection.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1.


A capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) system with liquid core waveguide (LCW) laser-induced fluorescence whole column imaging detection was developed in this study. A Teflon AF 2400 capillary was used as both the separation channel and the axially illuminated LCW. The excitation light was introduced at one end of the capillary, and propagated forward within the capillary. As the Teflon AF 2400 capillary has a refractive index (n = 1.29-1.31) lower than that of water (n = 1.33), total internal reflection was very apparent The employment of the Teflon AF 2400 capillary avoided the use of high refractive index additives such as glycerol, accommodating the system to wider applications. Due to its inert chemical properties, the capillary exhibited limited protein adsorption and electroosmotic flow; thus, the need for capillary preconditioning with polymeric solution and the addition of polymeric additives into the sample mixture can be avoided. Three types of proteins, naturally fluorescent proteins, covalently labeled proteins, and noncovalently labeled proteins, were examined using this method. CIEF under denaturing conditions was also explored, and several advantages over the native mode were found. When compared to a commercially available instrument with UV detection, the separation efficiency and peak capacity were similar while the detection sensitivity was enhanced by 3-5 orders of magnitude.

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