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J Br Menopause Soc. 2003 Sep;9(3):117-20, 121.

Assessment of abnormal bleeding in menopausal women: an update.

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Clinical Fellow, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia.


Peri and postmenopausal bleeding, with or without the use of hormone replacement therapy, is a common clinical problem. The exclusion of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma is the key issue in the evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of endometrial thickness has become a routine procedure and an initial investigation in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. There is debate as to whether a cut-off of 5 or 4 mm endometrial thickness should be employed. If the endometrial thickness is above these values, polyps have been diagnosed or the patient is presenting with recurrent bleeding, endometrial disease has to be excluded by histological assessment. Outpatient aspiration curettage has superseded dilatation and curettage, which was previously considered to be the gold standard for obtaining endometrial tissue, and provides the same sensitivity in detecting endometrial disease. Hysteroscopy allows visualisation of the uterine cavity and the opportunity for targeted biopsy and removal of endometrial polyps.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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