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Autoimmunity. 2003 Sep-Nov;36(6-7):367-79.

The contribution of immune regulatory and thyroid specific genes to the etiology of Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases.

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  • 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Bone Diseases, Department of Medicine, Box 1055, Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. yoshiyuki_ban@mssm.edu

Abstract

The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) are believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

PMID:
14669944
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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