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J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 27;279(9):8300-15. Epub 2003 Dec 10.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands regulate myeloperoxidase expression in macrophages by an estrogen-dependent mechanism involving the -463GA promoter polymorphism.

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Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, California 92121, USA.


A functional myeloperoxidase (MPO) promoter polymorphism, -463GA, has been associated with incidence or severity of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and some cancers. The polymorphism is within an Alu element encoding four hexamer repeats recognized by nuclear receptors (AluRRE). Here we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists strongly regulate MPO gene expression through the AluRRE. Opposite effects were observed in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF)- versus macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF)-derived macrophages (Mphi): Expression was markedly up-regulated (mean 26-fold) in MCSF-Mphi and down-regulated (34-fold) in GMCSF-Mphi. This was observed with rosiglitazone and three other PPARgamma ligands of the thiazolidinedione class, as well as the natural prostaglandin metabolite 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14) prostaglandin J(2). The selective PPARgamma antagonist, GW9662, blocked both the positive and negative effects on MPO expression. Gel retardation assays showed PPARgamma bound hexamers 3/4, and estrogen receptor-alpha bound hexamers 1/2, with -463A in hexamer 1 enhancing binding. Estrogen blocked PPARgamma effects on MPO expression, especially for the A allele. Charcoal filtration of fetal calf serum eliminated the block of PPARgamma, whereas replenishing the medium with 17beta-estradiol reinstated the block. These findings suggest a model in which estrogen receptor binds the AluRRE, preventing PPARgamma binding to the adjacent site. The positive and negative regulation by PPARgamma ligands, and the block by estrogen, was also observed in transgenic mice expressing the G and A alleles. The mouse MPO gene, which lacks the primate-specific AluRRE, was unresponsive to PPARgamma ligands, suggesting the human MPO transgenes will enhance the utility of mouse models for diseases involving MPO, such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's.

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