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Eukaryot Cell. 2003 Dec;2(6):1304-14.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae histidine phosphotransferase Ypd1p shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm for SLN1-dependent phosphorylation of Ssk1p and Skn7p.

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Departments of Biological Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.


Sln1p is a plasma membrane-localized two-component histidine kinase that functions as an osmotic stress sensor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Changes in osmotic pressure modulate Sln1p kinase activity, which, together with Ypd1p, a phosphorelay intermediate, changes the phosphorylation status of two response regulators, Ssk1p and Skn7p. Ssk1p controls the activity of the HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Skn7p is a nuclearly localized transcription factor that regulates genes involved in cell wall integrity and other processes. Subcellular compartmentalization may therefore play an important role in eukaryotic two-component pathway regulation. We have studied the subcellular localization of SLN1 pathway components and find that Ypd1p is a dynamic protein with a role in shuttling the osmotic stress signal from Sln1p to Ssk1p in the cytosol and to Skn7p in the nucleus. The need to translocate the signal into different intracellular compartments contributes a spatial dimension to eukaryotic two-component pathways compared to the prototypical two-component pathways of prokaryotes.

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