Send to

Choose Destination
Psychol Methods. 2003 Dec;8(4):492-496. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.8.4.492.

r equivalent: A simple effect size indicator.

Author information

U California.
Harvard U.


The purpose of this article is to propose a simple effect size estimate (obtained from the sample size, N, and a p value) that can be used (a) in meta-analytic research where only sample sizes and p values have been reported by the original investigator, (b) where no generally accepted effect size estimate exists, or (c) where directly computed effect size estimates are likely to be misleading. This effect size estimate is called r(equivalent) because it equals the sample point-biserial correlation between the treatment indicator and an exactly normally distributed outcome in a two-treatment experiment with N/2 units in each group and the obtained p value. As part of placing r(equivalent) into a broader context, the authors also address limitations of r(equivalent).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Psychological Association
Loading ...
Support Center