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Amino Acids. 2003 Dec;25(3-4):249-57. Epub 2003 Jul 29.

Histidine and lysine as targets of oxidative modification.

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  • 1Laboratory of Food and Biodynamics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.


Histidine and lysine are two representative targets of oxidative modifications. Histidine is extremely sensitive to a metal-catalyzed oxidation, generating 2-oxo-histidine and its ring-ruptured products, whereas the oxidation of lysine generates carbonyl products, such as aminoadipic semialdehyde. On the other hand, both histidine and lysine are nucleophilic amino acids and therefore vulnerable to modification by lipid peroxidation-derived electrophiles, such as 2-alkenals, 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, and ketoaldehydes, derived from lipid peroxidation. Histidine shows specific reactivity toward 2-alkenals and 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, whereas lysine is a ubiquitous target of aldehydes, generating various types of adducts. Covalent binding of reactive aldehydes to histidine and lysine is associated with the appearance of carbonyl reactivity and antigenecity of proteins.

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