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BMJ. 2003 Dec 6;327(7427):1316.

Cost effectiveness and cost utility model of public place defibrillators in improving survival after prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest.

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  • 1Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ.



To determine the cost effectiveness and cost utility of locating defibrillators in all major airports, railway stations, and bus stations throughout Scotland.


Economic modelling exercise with data from Heartstart (Scotland). Parameters used in economic model included direct costs derived for increased accident and emergency attendances, increased hospital bed days, purchase and maintenance of defibrillators, and training in their use; life years gained calculated from increased discharges from hospital and mean survival after discharge; utility (quality of life) obtained from published data. Sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of model. Future gains discounted at 1.5% a year and future costs at 6%.


Whole of Scotland.


Records of all prehospital cardiac arrests due to presumed heart disease that occurred in a major airport, railway, or bus station between May 1991 and March 1998 and were not witnessed by ambulance or medical staff.


Observed survival to hospital admission and observed survival to discharge. Predicted survival calculated by applying observed survival in patients attended by ambulance staff within three minutes to those who waited longer.


The total discounted direct costs were 18 325 pounds sterling a year. The cost per life year gained was 29 625 pounds sterling (49 625 dollars, 43 151 Euros) and the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained was pound 41 146 (68 924 dollars, 59 932 Euros). More widespread provision of public place defibrillators would increase these figures.


The cost per QALY calculated for public place defibrillators represents poorer value for money than some alternative strategies for improving survival after prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest, such as the use of other trained first responders. The figure exceeds the commonly discussed cut off levels for funding in the United Kingdom and United States of pound 30 000 and 50 000 dollars per QALY, respectively.

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