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Chem Biol. 2003 Nov;10(11):1033-41.

Structural basis for thrombin activation of a protease-activated receptor: inhibition of intramolecular liganding.

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  • 1Division of Hematology/Oncology and Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Abstract

Protease-activated G protein-coupled receptors (PAR1-4) are tethered-ligand receptors that are activated by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (exodomain) of the receptor. PAR1, the prototypic member of the PAR family, is the high-affinity thrombin receptor of platelets and vascular endothelium and plays a critical role in blood coagulation, thrombosis, and inflammation. Here, we describe the solution structure of the thrombin-cleaved exodomain of PAR1. The side chains of a hydrophobic hirudin-like (Hir) sequence and adjacent anionic motif project into solution. Docking of the exodomain Hir sequence to exosite I of thrombin reveals that the tethered ligand in the cleaved exodomain bends away from thrombin, leaving its active site available to another large macromolecular substrate. The N-terminal ligand is longer than anticipated and forms an intramolecular complex with a region located in the C terminus of the exodomain. Mutational analysis confirmed that this C-terminal region is a ligand binding site for both intra- and intermolecular ligands. A lipidated-ligand binding site peptide was found to be an effective inhibitor of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation.

PMID:
14652070
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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