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Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Feb;18(2):279-90. Epub 2003 Nov 26.

The orphan nuclear receptors NURR1 and NGFIB regulate adrenal aldosterone production.

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Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9032, USA.


Aldosterone biosynthesis in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex is regulated by transcription of CYP11B2 (encoding aldosterone synthase). The effects of nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFIB) (NR4A1), Nur-related factor 1 (NURR1) (NR4A2), and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) (NR5A1) on transcription of human CYP11B2 (hCYP11B2) and hCYP11B1 (11 beta-hydroxylase) were compared in human H295R adrenocortical cells. hCYP11B2 expression was increased by NGFIB and NURR1. Although hCYP11B1 was activated by SF-1, cotransfection with SF-1 inhibited activation of hCYP11B2 by NGFIB and NURR1. NGFIB and NURR1 transcript and protein levels were strongly induced by angiotensin (Ang) II, the major regulator of hCYP11B2 expression in vivo. Sequential deletion and mutagenesis of the hCYP11B2 promoter identified two functional NGFIB response elements (NBREs), one located at -766/-759 (NBRE-1) and the previously studied Ad5 element at -129/-114. EMSAs suggested that both elements bound NGFIB and NURR1. In human adrenals, NURR1 immunoreactivity was preferentially localized in the zona glomerulosa and to a lesser degree in the zona fasciculata, whereas NGFIB was detected in both zones. The calmodulin kinase inhibitor KN93 partially blocked K(+)-stimulated transcription of NGFIB and NURR1. KN93 partially inhibited the effect of Ang II on NURR1 mRNA levels but did not modify the effect on expression of NGFIB. Mutation of the NBRE-1, Ad5, and Ad1/cAMP response element (CRE) cis-elements reduced both basal and Ang II-induced levels of hCYP11B2, demonstrating that all three elements are important for maximal transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that NGFIB and NURR1 are key regulators of hCYP11B2 expression and may partially mediate the regulation of hCYP11B2 by Ang II.

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