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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;17(6):907-29.

Hepatobiliary, renal and bone complications of intestinal failure.

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Digestive Disease Centre, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Windsor Building, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK.


Abnormal liver function tests in patients with intestinal failure (IF) may be due to the underlying disease, IF or the treatments given (including parenteral nutrition (PN)). PN-related liver disease in children usually relates to intrahepatic cholestasis and in adults to steatosis. Steatosis may be consequent upon an excess of carbohydrate, lipid or protein, or upon a deficiency of a specific molecule. Pigment-type gallstones are common in adults and children with IF; these develop from biliary sludge that forms during periods of gallbladder stasis. Ileal disease/resection, parenteral nutrition, surgery, rapid weight loss and drugs all increase the risk of developing gallstones. Gallstone formation may be prevented by reducing gallbladder stasis (oral/enteral feeding or prokinetic agents), altering bile composition, or by means of a prophylactic cholecystectomy. Calcium oxalate renal stones are common in patients with a short bowel and retained functioning colon and are consequent upon increased absorption of dietary oxalate; they are prevented by a low-oxalate diet. An osteopathy may occur with long-term parenteral nutrition.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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