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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Nov;189(5):1423-32.

Composition of gestational weight gain impacts maternal fat retention and infant birth weight.

Author information

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agriculture Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA. nbutte@bcm.tmc.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how changes in gestational weight and body composition affect infant birth weight and maternal fat retention after delivery in underweight, normal-weight and overweight women.

STUDY DESIGN:

We assessed the body composition of 63 women (low body mass index, 17 women; normal body mass index, 34 women; and high body mass index, 12 women) on the basis of measurements of total body nitrogen by prompt-gamma activation analysis, total body potassium by whole body counting, and a multicomponent model based on total body water by deuterium dilution, body volume by densitometry, and bone mineral content by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before pregnancy, at 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation, and at 2, 6, and 27 weeks after delivery. Infant weight and length were recorded at birth; infant anthropometry and body composition by DXA were assessed at 2 and 27 weeks of age.

RESULTS:

Gestational weight gain was correlated significantly with gains in total body water, total body potassium, protein, fat-free mass, and fat mass (P=.001-.003). Gains in total body water, total body potassium, protein and fat-free mass did not differ among body mass index groups; however, fat mass gain was higher in the high body mass index group (P=.03). Birth weight was correlated positively with gain in total body water, total body potassium, and fat-free mass (P<.01), but not fat mass. Postpartum weight and fat retention were correlated positively with gestational weight gain (P=.001) and fat mass gain (P=.001) but not with total body water, total body potassium, or fat-free mass gain.

CONCLUSION:

Appropriate, but not excessive, gestational weight gain is needed to optimize infant birth weight and minimize maternal postpartum fat retention.

PMID:
14634581
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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