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Cancer Res. 2003 Nov 15;63(22):7791-8.

SB-431542 and Gleevec inhibit transforming growth factor-beta-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells.

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Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has growth-stimulating effects on mesenchymal cells and several tumor cell lines. The signaling pathway for this effect is, however, not well understood. We examined how TGF-beta stimulates proliferation of MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Two distinct type I receptors for TGF-beta, ALK-1 and ALK-5, were expressed and functional in MG63 cells. Of these two receptors, ALK-5 appears to be responsible for the growth stimulation because expression of constitutively active ALK-5, but not ALK-1, stimulated proliferation of MG63 cells. SB-431542 (0.3 microM), a novel inhibitor of ALK4/5/7 kinase, suppressed TGF-beta-induced growth stimulation. DNA microarray analysis as well as quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNAs from TGF-beta-treated cells demonstrated that several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor AA, were induced in response to TGF-beta in MG63 cells. Gleevec (1 microM) as well as AG1296 (5 microM) inhibited TGF-beta-induced growth stimulation of MG63 cells, suggesting that platelet-derived growth factor AA was mainly responsible for the growth-stimulatory effect of TGF-beta. We also examined the mechanisms of perturbation of growth-suppressing signaling in MG63 cells. We found that expression of c-Myc, which is down-regulated by TGF-beta in many other cells, was up-regulated in MG63 cells, suggesting that up-regulation of c-Myc expression may be the mechanism canceling growth-suppressing signaling of TGF-beta in MG63 cells.

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