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Anal Chem. 2003 Sep 1;75(17):4432-40.

Integration of electrokinetic-based multidimensional separation/concentration platform with electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry for proteome analysis of Shewanella oneidensis.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.


This work focuses on the development of a multidimensional electrokinetic-based separation/concentration platform coupled with electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) for achieving the high resolution and ultrasensitive analysis of complex protein/peptide mixtures. A microdialysis junction is employed as the interface for on-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with transient capillary isotachophoresis/zone electrophoresis (CITP/CZE) in an integrated platform. Besides the excellent resolving power afforded by both CIEF and CZE separations, the electrokinetic focusing/stacking effects of CIEF and CITP greatly enhance the dynamic range and detection sensitivity of MS for protein identification. The constructed multidimensional separation/concentration platform is demonstrated for the analysis of Shewanella oneidensis proteome, which has considerable implications toward the bioremediation of environmental pollutants. The electrokinetic-based platform offers the overall peak capacity comparable to those obtained using multidimensional chromatography systems, but with a much shorter run time and no need for column regeneration. Most importantly, a total of 1174 unique proteins, corresponding to 26.5% proteome coverage, are identified from the cytosolic fraction of S. oneidensis, while requiring <500 ng of proteolytic digest loaded in the CIEF capillary. The ultrasensitive capabilities of electrokinetic-based proteome approach are attributed to the concentration effect in CIEF, the electrokinetic stacking of CITP, the nanoscale peak volume in CZE, the "accurate mass tag" strategy for protein/peptide identification, and the high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and high-mass measurement accuracy of FTICR-MS.

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