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Stroke. 2003 Dec;34(12):2887-92. Epub 2003 Nov 20.

Recurrent thromboembolism in infants and children suffering from symptomatic neonatal arterial stroke: a prospective follow-up study.

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Department of Paediatrics, University of Munich, Germany.



The present study was performed to evaluate the rate of recurrent symptomatic thromboembolism with respect to prothrombotic risk factors and underlying clinical conditions.


In a series of 215 consecutively enrolled neonates with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), the factor V G1691A mutation, factor II G20210A variant, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) T677T genotype, lipoprotein (Lp) (a), antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) were investigated. Patient median follow-up was 3.5 years (range, 1 to 8 years).


During follow-up, 7 infants and children (3.3%) showed recurrent symptomatic thromboembolism (AIS, n=4; venous sinus thrombosis, n=2; deep vein thrombosis of the leg, n=1). The factor V mutation, factor II variant, elevated Lp(a) >30 mg/dL, protein C deficiency, and protein S or antithrombin deficiency were associated with first stroke onset. In 5 of 7 cases (71.4%), prothrombotic risk factors [MTHFR T677T, elevated Lp(a), hyperhomocysteinemia, protein C deficiency] were involved at the time of recurrence. Furthermore, a second thromboembolic event was triggered additionally by underlying diseases (71%), eg, cardiac malformation and immobilization, diarrhea, mastoiditis, and moyamoya syndrome.


Data shown here give evidence that symptomatic recurrent thromboembolism is not common in children with neonatal AIS. The risk of a second event, however, is increased when underlying diseases occur and prothrombotic risk factors are involved.

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