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Genes Dev. 2003 Nov 15;17(22):2825-38.

Distinct HP1 and Su(var)3-9 complexes bind to sets of developmentally coexpressed genes depending on chromosomal location.

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1
Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam 1066 CX, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Heterochromatin proteins are thought to play key roles in chromatin structure and gene regulation, yet very few genes have been identified that are regulated by these proteins. We performed large-scale mapping and analysis of in vivo target loci of the proteins HP1, HP1c, and Su(var)3-9 in Drosophila Kc cells, which are of embryonic origin. For each protein, we identified approximately 100-200 target genes among >6000 probed loci. We found that HP1 and Su(var)3-9 bind together to transposable elements and genes that are predominantly pericentric. In addition, Su(var)3-9 binds without HP1 to a distinct set of nonpericentric genes. On chromosome 4, HP1 binds to many genes, mostly independent of Su(var)3-9. The binding pattern of HP1c is largely different from those of HP1 and Su(var)3-9. Target genes of HP1 and Su(var)3-9 show lower expression levels in Kc cells than do nontarget genes, but not if they are located in pericentric regions. Strikingly, in pericentric regions, target genes of Su(var)3-9 and HP1 are predominantly embryo-specific genes, whereas on the chromosome arms Su(var)3-9 is preferentially associated with a set of male-specific genes. These results demonstrate that, depending on chromosomal location, the HP1 and Su(var)3-9 proteins form different complexes that associate with specific sets of developmentally coexpressed genes.

PMID:
14630943
PMCID:
PMC280630
DOI:
10.1101/gad.281503
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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