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Curr Opin Immunol. 2003 Dec;15(6):677-82.

Toll-like receptors: balancing host resistance with immune tolerance.

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  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


Recent advances in the field of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have established their importance for acute innate immune responses and their fundamental requirement for initiation of CD4(+) T-cell responses. Current directions in the field have been towards understanding the role of cytokines secreted by professional antigen-presenting cells in response to TLR ligands and also pathological manifestations in terms of increased production of rheumatoid factors due to TLR ligation on B cells. Thus, it is becoming clear that TLRs are important for induction of adaptive immune responses, but misguided responses can lead to autoimmune pathology.

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