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Med Educ. 2003 Nov;37(11):992-1000.

The development and validation of a knowledge, attitude and behaviour questionnaire to assess undergraduate evidence-based practice teaching and learning.

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Department of Community Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.



Most evidence-based practice (EBP) educational assessment tools evaluated to date have focused on specific knowledge components or technical skills. Other important potential barriers to the adoption of EBP, such as attitudinal, perceptual and behavioural factors, have yet to be studied, especially in the undergraduate setting. Therefore, we developed and validated a knowledge, attitude and behaviour questionnaire designed to evaluate EBP teaching and learning in an undergraduate medical curriculum.


We derived the questionnaire from a comprehensive literature review, informed by international and local experts and a Year 5 student focus group. We determined its factor structure and refined and validated the questionnaire according to the responses of a cohort of Year 5 and a combined group of Years 2 and 3 students using principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation. Factor reliability was computed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. We assessed construct validity by correlating the factors with other measures of EBP activity and examined responsiveness through paired t-test of the pre/post factor mean scores.


A 43-item questionnaire was developed. Four factors were identified from both student groups. The overall questionnaire as well as each factor had high construct validity (Cronbach's alpha > 0.7 for each scale). No significant correlations were found between the 4 factors, confirming their orthogonality. Positive correlations, however, resulted between factor mean scores and other EBP activities. The responsiveness of the questionnaire was satisfactory.


A reliable knowledge, attitude and behaviour measure of EBP teaching and learning appropriate for undergraduate medical education has been developed and validated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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