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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Dec;32(11):1089-95.

Late hemorrhagic cystitis after reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RIST).

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Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.


We reviewed medical records of 256 patients to investigate the frequency and characteristics of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) associated with reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) as opposed to conventional stem cell transplantation (CST); 137 patients underwent CST and 119 RIST. Diagnosis of HC was made based on two or more episodes of sterile, macroscopic hematuria with normal coagulation profiles, without any evidence of renal stones or genitourinary malignancy. Actuarial frequency of HC development in RIST group was 7.6% (9/119), which gave a cumulative annual incidence of 11.7%. In CST group, 13 of 137 patients (9.5%) developed HC, giving an estimated annual incidence of 9.7%. The probability of developing HC was similar between the two groups (P=0.77). The viral etiologies of HC, adenovirus (n=12) and BK virus (n=2), were documented in eight patients after RIST and in six after CST. HC was milder and of a shorter duration, with less blood transfusion requirements, in RIST group than in CST group. A multivariate analysis revealed that HC was associated with antiadenovirus antibody positivity in the recipients, total dose of busulfan, and chronic GVHD. Although HC following RIST is less severe than that following CST, it is still a significant problem.

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