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J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003 Sep;43(3):356-66.

The effects of various therapeutic measures on shoulder range of motion and cross-sectional areas of rotator cuff muscles after baseball pitching.

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Doctoral Program in Medical Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.



The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various therapeutic measures on the shoulder range of motion (ROM) and muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) of rotator cuff muscles after baseball pitching.



a mode of therapeutic measures was classified in 4 groups; the control (CON), ice treatment (IT), light shoulder exercise (LSE) and ice treatment with LSE (ILSE) groups. Each therapeutic measure was performed after pitching.


7 healthy, skilled baseball pitchers.


ROM and mCSA were measured before pitching, immediately after pitching, at the time of the therapeutic measure, and 24 hours after pitching. Shoulder ROM at 90 inverted exclamation mark of abduction included internal rotation (IROM), maximum internal rotation (IMROM), external rotation (EROM) and maximum external rotation (EMROM).


In all groups, both IROM and IMROM were significantly decreased after pitching compared with the pre-exercise values and conversely both EROM and EMROM were significantly increased. The mCSA of all rotator cuff muscles were increased significantly after pitching. For IMROM, ILSE showed a significant recovery at the post-therapeutic measure compared with the others and at 24 hours after pitching compared with IT, respectively. For IROM, both LSE and ILSE showed significant recovery compared with CON at the post-therapeutic measure. For the mCSA of external muscles, ILSE showed a greater decrease at the post-therapeutic measure than the others, and at 24 hours after pitching than CON.


This study suggested the possibility that ILSE was more effective to recover ROM and decrease mCSA than the other methods.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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