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Urology. 2003 Nov;62(5):831-4.

Treatment of renal transplant ureterovesical anastomotic strictures using antegrade balloon dilation with or without holmium:YAG laser endoureterotomy.

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Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.



To report our results after antegrade endoscopic treatment of ureteral stenosis with balloon dilation with or without holmium laser endoureterotomy. Ureteral stenosis is the most common long-term urologic complication of renal transplantation.


From July 2000 to October 2002, 9 renal transplant patients with ureteral obstruction diagnosed by an increase in serum creatinine and radiologic evidence presented for endoscopic treatment. All patients were treated with nephrostomy tube drainage followed by antegrade flexible nephroureteroscopy and balloon dilation of the stricture. Three patients required holmium laser endoureterotomy during the same procedure because of fluoroscopic and endoscopic evidence of persistent stricture. All patients were treated with ureteral stents and nephrostomy tubes postoperatively. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 6 to 32).


The site of stenosis was at the ureterovesical anastomosis in all patients, and the mean stricture length was 0.28 cm. Two patients had previously undergone ureteroneocystostomy for prior ureteral stenosis. Six patients (66%) required only balloon dilation, and 3 patients (33%) also required holmium laser endoureterotomy. The median ureteral stent and nephrostomy tube duration was 40 and 62 days, respectively. The mean serum creatinine level was 2.3 mg/dL at presentation and 1.7 mg/dL at the last follow-up visit. After a median follow-up of 24 months, the ureteral patency and graft function rates were both 100%. No perioperative complications occurred.


Balloon dilation with or without holmium laser endoureterotomy was successful and safe in this group of renal transplant patients with short ureterovesical anastomotic strictures.

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