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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2003 Dec;60(4):515-23.

The porcine coronary model of in-stent restenosis: current status in the era of drug-eluting stents.

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  • 1Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.


Drug-eluting stents are revolutionizing interventional cardiology. Sirolimus-eluting stents are in widespread clinical use, associated with well-documented remarkably low restenosis rates, and a number of other agents appear promising in clinical trials. These human studies have been preceded by numerous animal studies, foremost among them the pig coronary model of in-stent restenosis (ISR). The histologic response to porcine coronary stenting was described over a decade ago. Porcine stenting studies now provide examinations not only of histology, but also mechanisms of action, toxicity, and biocompatibility. This review therefore examines the current status of this porcine coronary model of ISR. Contemporary methods of pig coronary stenting are discussed. The morphometric, cellular, and molecular analyses of the responses to stent injury are then described. Finally, recent pig coronary drug-eluting stent studies are examined, with a discussion of their advantages, limitations, and possible future modifications.

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