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Endocrinology. 2004 Mar;145(3):1218-26. Epub 2003 Nov 14.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) increases granulosa cell proliferation: dependence on c-Jun and TNF receptor type 1.

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Center of Reproductive Sciences, and Department of Molecualr and Integrative Physiology, Unversity of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA.


TNF alpha has significant in vitro effects on steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis and reproductive alterations occur in TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) knockout mice. The present study investigated the effect of in vitro TNF on granulosa cell proliferation from immature mice at 28 d of age, with emphasis on intracellular signaling that regulates granulosa cell proliferation. TNF dose dependently increased granulosa cell proliferation and the proto-oncogene c-Jun protein. However, other Jun family members such as JunD was expressed constitutively and JunB was not expressed. In vitro TNF did not increase c-Jun and proliferation in granulosa cells from TNFR1 knockout mice. The time course of TNF-induced c-Jun revealed biphasic patterns of short-term (3 h) and long-term (24 h) induction. The time courses of Ser63- and Ser73-phospho c-Jun coincided with changes in total c-Jun. Among MAPK cascades, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-NH(2)-teminal kinase signaling was increased transiently in TNF-treated cells, whereas p38MAPK and ERK1 and 2 were not changed. In addition, overexpression of nuclear factor-kappa B and addition of ceramide and 8-bromo-cAMP did not increase c-Jun or proliferation. Antisense oligonucleotides for c-Jun blocked cell proliferation induced by TNF. In conclusion, the above results demonstrate that TNF increased c-Jun by activating stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-NH(2)-teminal kinase signaling via TNFR1 in mouse granulosa cells, and the induced c-Jun resulted in increased cell proliferation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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